Family planning -: is not synonymous with birth control; it is more than mere birth control. A WHO Expert Committee ( 1970) has stated that family planning included
- The proper spacing and limitation of birth.
- Advice on sterility,
- Education for parenthood.
- Sex education
- Screening for pathological conditions related to the reproductive system.
- Genetic counseling.
- Premarital consultation and examination,
- Carrying out pregnancy tests
- Marriage counselling .
- The preparation of couples for the arrival of their first child.
- Providing services for unmarried mothers
- Teaching home economics and nutrition and
- Providing adoption service.
These activities vary from country to country according to national objectives and policies with regard to family planning . This is the modern concept of family planning.
- Coitus interruptus
- Safe period
- Foam tablet
- Jellies and pastes
- Diaphragm and cervical caps
- Mechanical and Chemical
- Physiological (oral)
- Combined pill
- Sequential pill
- Slow release combinations
Abstinence :- Sound in theory but difficult to practice . We will cause temperamental changes and mental break down.
Coitus interrupts :- It is widely practice . The pre coital secretion contains the spermatozoa can cause pregnancy . Even a drop or a single spermatozoa is sufficient to cause pregnancy the common complication is pelvic congestion . Pregnancy rate very high.
- The weak before and after menses in known as safe period .
- Ovulation occur at mid cycle.
- The life of ovum is 2 days.
- Life of spermatozo is 3 days in vagina
- This method only program sex.
- Not useful in post natal
- Where the menses is irregular .
It is partly provide the physical barrier partial as spermicital . The foam tablet is placed deep in vagina 5 to 10 minutes before intercourse.
- Easy to use
- Compared with condom
- Result are more than 90%.
- Will not dissolve properly when the vagina is dry.
- Can cause vaginitis on long use.
- It left open the tablet is spoiled
- It is introduced in vagina before intercourse deep with help of applicator .
- They are spermicidal in nature the results are better it used with condom.
They are made of synthetic rubber or latex have spermidal liquid .
- Harm less
- Protect against pregnancy & STD
- Gives greater protection when combined with spermidal
- No side effect.
- The failure rate is 10-15%.
Diaphragm and cervical cap
It is synthetic rubber or plastic it is mechanical devise which protect the spermatozoa to enter in cervical canal it is inserted as deep in vagina as much as possible so that no gap in rim of diaphragm and vagina drop with spermical wash or jelly felted before I/C.
Advantage :- it is cheap.
Disadvantage :- Failure rate 10-15 %. It is to be fit by doctor or nurse .
- It is smaller than diaphragm.
- It is filled in vaginal portion of cervix once fitted can remain before next menses.
- It is safe.
Disadvantage :- It used be used only in health cervix and long cervix.
Vault cap :- Same as diaphragm & cervical caps is used in small cervix .
Intra Uterine device b
- Lippes loop
- Copper T.
- Multi Load.
- Simple procedure for insertion.
- No loss of time.
- Inexpensive .
- Reversive method
- May remain in uterus for years.
- Pregnancy or suspected pregnancy
- Pelvic inflammation
- Recent history of uterine bleeding
- Suspected case of cancer
- Abnormal bleeding
- Vaginal discharge
- Pelvic inflammation
- Break through bleeding for only 1-2 menses
- Diminished Lactation
- Beast tenderness
- Weight gain
- Thromboembolic Disease
Useful side effect:-
- Relief of dysmenorrheal
- Relief of acne feeling
- Relief of premenstrual tension of well being .
- Cancer of the Breast
- Congestion Cardiac failure
- Vaginal bleeding
- Sterlization Male
- Female Open method Laparoscopic