Reproductive organs female

Family planning -: is not synonymous with birth control; it is more than mere birth control. A WHO Expert  Committee    ( 1970) has stated that family  planning included

  • The proper spacing and limitation of birth.
  • ¬†Advice¬† on sterility,
  • ¬†Education for parenthood.
  • ¬†Sex education
  • ¬†Screening for pathological conditions related to the reproductive¬† system.
  • ¬†Genetic counseling.
  • ¬†Premarital consultation and examination,
  • Carrying out pregnancy tests
  • ¬†Marriage counselling .
  • ¬†The preparation of couples for the arrival¬† of their first child.
  • ¬†Providing services for unmarried mothers
  • ¬†Teaching home economics and nutrition and
  • ¬†Providing adoption service.

These activities vary from country to country according to national objectives and policies with regard to family planning . This is the modern concept of family planning.

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  1. Behavioral
    • Abstinence
    • Coitus interruptus
    • Safe period
  2.  Chemical
    • Foam tablet
    • Jellies and pastes
  3. Mechanical
    • Condom
    • Diaphragm and cervical caps
    • IUCDs
  4. Combined
    • Mechanical and Chemical
  5. Physiological (oral)
    • Combined pill
    • Sequential pill
    • Micro-pill
    • Slow release combinations
  6. Surgical
    • Abortion
    • Permanent
      1. Vasectomy
      2. Tubectomy
        1. Laproscopic
        2. Abdominal

Abstinence :- Sound in theory but difficult to practice . We will cause temperamental changes and mental break down.

Coitus interrupts :- It is widely practice . The pre coital secretion contains the spermatozoa can cause pregnancy . Even a drop or a single spermatozoa is sufficient to cause pregnancy the common complication is pelvic congestion . Pregnancy rate very high.


Safe Period

  • The weak before and after menses in known as safe period .
  • Ovulation occur at mid cycle.
  • The life of ovum is 2 days.
  • Life of spermatozo is 3 days in vagina
  • This method only program sex.
  • Not useful in post natal
  • Where the menses is irregular .

Foam Tablet

It is partly provide the physical barrier partial as spermicital  . The foam tablet is placed deep in vagina 5 to 10 minutes before intercourse.


  • Cheap
  • Harmless
  • Easy to use
  • Compared with condom
  • Result are more than 90%.


  • ¬†Will not dissolve properly when the vagina is¬†dry.
  • ¬†Can cause vaginitis on long use.
  • ¬†It left open the tablet is spoiled
  • ¬†It is introduced in vagina before intercourse¬†deep¬† with help of applicator .
  • ¬†They are spermicidal in nature the results are¬† better it used with condom.


They are made of synthetic rubber or latex have spermidal liquid .


  • Easy
  • Cheap
  • Reliable
  • Harm less
  • Protect against¬† pregnancy¬† & STD
  • Gives greater¬† protection¬† when¬† combined with¬† spermidal
  • No side effect.
  • The failure rate is 10-15%.

Diaphragm and cervical cap

Diaphram  :-

It is synthetic rubber or plastic it is mechanical devise which protect the spermatozoa to enter in cervical canal  it is inserted as deep in vagina as much as possible  so that  no gap in rim of diaphragm and vagina  drop with spermical wash or jelly felted before I/C.

Advantage :- it is cheap.

Disadvantage :- Failure rate 10-15 %. It is to be fit by doctor or nurse .




Cervical Cap

  • It is smaller than diaphragm.
  • It is filled in vaginal portion of cervix once fitted can remain before next menses.
  • It is safe.

Disadvantage :- It used be used only in health cervix and long cervix.


Cervical Cap

Vault cap :- Same as diaphragm & cervical caps is used in small cervix .

Intra Uterine device b

  • Lippes loop
  • ¬†Copper T.
  • ¬†Multi Load.
Intra Uterine device

Advantages :-

  • Simple procedure for insertion.
  • No loss of time.
  • Inexpensive .
  • Reversive method
  • May remain in uterus for years.

Contra indication

  • Pregnancy or suspected pregnancy
  • Pelvic inflammation
  • Recent history of uterine bleeding
  • Nulliparous
  • Suspected case of cancer


  • Abnormal bleeding
  • Pain
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Pelvic inflammation
  • Perforation

Oral Contraception

  • Break through bleeding for only 1-2 menses
  • Diminished¬† Lactation
  • Beast tenderness
  • Weight gain
  • Nausea
  • Thromboembolic Disease
  • Jaundice
  • Carcinogenic
oral pills

Psycological changes

Useful side effect:-

  • Relief of dysmenorrheal
  • Relief of acne feeling
  • Relief of premenstrual tension of well being .

Contra indication

  • Cancer of the Breast
  • Congestion Cardiac failure
  • Epilepsy
  • Asthma
  • Eczema
  • Migrane
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Abortion
  • Sterlization¬† Male
  • Female Open method Laparoscopic
Contra indication